CIA World Factbook Up-to-date encyclopedic-type information (government, people, disputes, military, etc.) on many countries, gathered and produced by the CIA. Includes maps and flags among other features.
Library of Congress Country Studies Lengthy profiles of countries provided by researchers at the Library of Congress.
Library of Congress Portals to the World Lengthy annotated lists of links to websites about foreign countries.
U.S. State Department Country Data Sheets The U.S. State Department offers fact sheets about every country, particularly related to the diplomatic status of those countries. You can also find State Department advice about traveling in particular countries.
World by Map World by Map presents several statistics and charts by tables, maps and diagrams, (country focus).